The oil subsidy regime between 2009 – 2011 recorded one of the most monumental cases of fraud in Nigeria’s history, with the government paying importers subsidy for 59 million litres of fuel per day, while the country actually consumed about 35 million litres.
In 2011, Nigeria spent N2.5 trillion on fuel subsidy, a 900 percent increase from the N245 billion in the year’s budget.
More than 30 companies were identified after investigations were launched, and several of them are still facing criminal charges in Nigerian courts for making hugely inflated subsidy claims.
Last week, the NNPC released the names of 39 winners for the sale and purchase of Nigerian crude in 2017/2018. The contract would run for one year effective from January 1 for consecutive 12 circles of crude oil allocation and involves 18 Nigerian companies, 11 International Traders, five foreign refineries, three National Oil Companies (NOCs) and two NNPC trading arms.
The NNPC said all the contracts for the 2017/2018 crude trade were for 32,000 barrels per day except Duke Oil Ltd, an oil trading arm of the NNPC, which shall be for 90,000 barrels per day.
The indigenous beneficiaries include Oando, Sahara Energy, MRS Oil and Gas, AA Rano, Bono, Masters Energy, Eterna Oil and Gas, Cassiva Energy, Hyde Energy and Brittania U.
Others are NorthWest Petroleum, Optima Energy, AMG Petroenergy, Arkiren Oil and Gas Limited, Shoreline Limited, Entourage Oil, Setana Energy and Prudent Energy.
At least six of the companies listed were indicted or are still facing charges for fuel subsidy fraud. These include Masters Energy, Oando, Eterna Oil and Gas, Seterna Energy, AMG Petroenergy, and Prudent Energy.
“Many of these multinationals, oil companies, and other high-level investors in the system, they have a way of manipulating the system that you won’t be surprised if many of them also have contributed to the campaign and funding of some of these political parties and government officials,” said Olanrewaju Suraju, chairman of Civil Society Network Against Corruption, a coalition of anti-corruption organisations.
“So they pay them back which is usually considered an investment in the electoral process. They get to pay them back with these kinds of contracts.”
ACCUSED OF FRAUD
On October 19, 2011, a vessel, MT Zhen Star, purportedly docked on Nigerian waters with 58,000 metric tonnes of petrol owned by two companies – Masters Energy Oil and Gas Limited and Caades Oil and Gas Limited, according to findings by a technical committee set up by the Nigerian government in 2012 to investigate subsidy payments.
Masters Energy claimed it discharged 28,000 metric tonnes of petrol from the vessel in the presence of officials of the Petroleum Products Pricing Regulatory Agency, Department of Petroleum Resources, Navy, Customs, and others.
In reality, however, MT Zhen Star does not exist, but Masters Energy collected N2.9 billion as subsidy claims from the Nigerian government, the committee concluded. Despite the indictment, Masters Energy was among some other indicted firms that were never prosecuted.
Also, in 2013, the Police Special Fraud Unit charged Oando Plc alongside three other companies and two managing directors for allegedly obtaining N2.9 billion from the federal government under false pretence of importing petroleum products into the country.
For Eterna Oil and Gas Plc, after initially arraigning them in 2012, the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission, EFCC, in 2014 re-arraigned the firm and its director, Mahmud Tukur, son of former chairman of the Peoples’ Democratic Party, alongside other suspects over a N3.1 billion fuel subsidy scam. The accused persons were charged on a 38-amended count charge bordering on conspiracy, obtaining money under false pretence and forgery.
Also in 2012, a House of Representatives committee led by Farouk Lawan named AMG Petroenergy, Setana Energy, and Prudent Energy in a list of 68 oil marketers that collected subsidy funds from the federal government illegally. The committee mandated the three companies to refund the sums of N7.2 billion, N2.7 billion, and N1.3 billion respectively to the Nigerian government.
Prudent Energy, which failed to appear before the committee, was also listed among marketers that were not registered with the PPPRA before they got their first allocation for product supplies. The company received its first allocation on August 12, 2011, ten days before it registered with the PPPRA, the lawmakers found.
The House committee listed Setana Energy as a marketer that had no tank-farm, never used its through-put agreement yet used it to claim N44.8 million as fee for importation of petroleum products under the Petroleum Support Fund (PSF) scheme.
The trio of AMG Petroenergy, Eterna Oil, and Prudent Energy and Resources Ltd were also listed as tax defaulters under the PSF scheme.
In 2009, the Accountant-General’s office paid N999 million each for 128 subsidy payments in a record-breaking 24 hours, an equivalent of about N42 million paid out every hour. The companies that benefitted include Oando Plc, N25.9 billion (26 cheques); Brittania U Nigeria Ltd, N999 million (one cheque); and NorthWest Petroleum, N8.9 billion (nine cheques).